Pointer (dog) is a breed of large sporting dog that hunts by scent; it is trained in locating game to indicate the place of concealment of the quarry by standing rigid with its nose pointing in the direction of the spot. It was once believed that the breed originated in Spain several centuries ago and then spread into various other countries. It is now known, however, that pointers came into general use in Spain, Portugal, eastern Europe, and the British Isles at about the same time. The first pointers of which reliable records exist date from the middle of the 17th century in England. It is believed that the breed, sometimes specified as the English pointer, was established by crossing the foxhound, greyhound, bloodhound, and probably the spaniel. The English pointer was crossed with the Spanish pointer at the beginning of the 18th century in order to improve the former’s pointing instinct, and during the 19th century with various breeds of setters in order to make it more tractable. The modern pointer is an ideal hunting dog, lean and lithe, with a smooth, shorthaired coat that is white with patches or spots of either liver, orange, black, or lemon. The dog weighs from 20 to 34 kg (45 to 75 lb) and stands from 58 to 71 cm (23 to 28 in). It has a long, moderately wide skull; a long, square muzzle; wide nostrils; long, silky ears that lie flat to the cheeks; medium-sized eyes that are either black or various shades of brown; a deep chest; a strong back; and a moderately long, tapering tail. The German shorthaired and German wirehaired pointers are related breeds.
Pudelpointer is a breed of dog, developed in Germany in the 19th century for use in hunting. The dog, which somewhat resembles a German wirehaired pointer, stands about 61 cm (about 24 in) at the shoulder and weighs about 27 kg (about 60 lb). It has a thick, wiry outer coat and a softer inner coat, with bushy growths on the forehead and chin. The color is usually brownish. The Pudelpointer ears hang and the tail is docked to a length of about 18 cm (about 7 in).
Portuguese Water Dog is a working breed of dog that somewhat resembles a poodle but with a face more like a spaniel and more webbing between the toes. The breed was developed in Portugal to retrieve fishing equipment from the water. The males stand about 51 to 58 cm (about 20 to 23 in) tall at the shoulder and weigh 19 to 27 kg (42 to 60 lb). The females are about 43 to 53 cm (about 17 to 21 in) tall and weigh 16 to 23 kg (35 to 50 lb). The coat is black, white, brown, or grayish, often with white markings, and may be short and curly or long and wavy. The Portuguese Water Dog ears drop, and the tail is long and curved.
Poodle is a breed of dog, believed to have originated in Germany as a water retriever. It appeared in various parts of the world long ago; bas-reliefs dating from the 1st century in southern Europe represent such an animal. Although the poodle has been particularly popular in France since the beginning of the 19th century, its intelligence and adaptability have made it a universal favorite.
Three varieties of the breed exist: the standard, which is 38 cm (15 in) or more in height at the shoulder and weighs 9 kg (20 lb) or more; the miniature, from 25 to 38 cm (10 to 15 in) high at the shoulder and weighing from 5 to 9 kg (12 to 20 lb); and the toy, which is 25 cm (10 in) or less at the shoulder and weighs under 5 kg (12 lb). The standard variety is used in the country as a water retriever, watchdog, and pet; the miniature and toy varieties are used as pets chiefly in urban surroundings. All three types have a moderately peaked skull; a long, straight muzzle; dark, oval-shaped eyes; ears that are set low and hang close to the head; a strong neck; a deep chest; straight forelegs and muscular hind legs; and a tail that is carried high. The dog has a woolly undercoat and a topcoat that consists either of wiry, curled hair, or long, silky hair hanging in cords. The dog may be of any solid color. The coat of the poodle is generally clipped in one of two principal styles, the Continental or the English saddle. The custom of clipping apparently originated as a means of facilitating swimming. In the Continental style, the hindquarters of the dog are shaved down to the skin, with rosettes of hair usually left on the hips and hocks. In the English saddle style, the hindquarters are clipped to leave a blanket of short hair. In both styles each leg of the Poodle is clipped, leaving only a bracelet of hair near the foot; the face and tail are also clipped, except for a pom-pom of hair at the end.
Saluki is a breed of hound, for which records date from 329 bc. It is found living with desert tribes in the Middle East. The saluki is known to have been used to hunt the gazelle and is therefore sometimes called a gazelle hound. The breed was introduced into England in 1840 and became popular there and on the Continent toward the end of the century. The saluki, which hunts chiefly by sight, is used in England to course hares. In recent years the dog has become popular in the United States as a show dog and a pet. The animal has a long, narrow head; bright black or hazel eyes; long ears covered with long, silky hair and lying close to the head; straight forelegs; hind legs set widely apart; and a long curving tail. The coat is smooth and silky and is sometimes feathered on the legs, the back of the thighs, and elsewhere on the body. The dog may be any of a number of colors including white, cream, fawn, golden, or red; or may be white, black, and tan, or black and tan. The average height of the male at the shoulder is from 58 to 71 cm (23 to 28 in); the female is usually smaller. The breed (Saluki) was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1927.
Irish Wolfhound is a breed of hunting dog, of the hound variety, the tallest dog known. The Irish wolfhound originated in Ireland in remote antiquity. It was known in Rome in the 4th century ad, and early Celtic literature contains many stories concerning Celtic heroes and their wolfhounds, which were used principally to hunt wolf and elk. The breed became almost extinct in Ireland and Europe in the middle of the 19th century, but was then rehabilitated by the Scottish dog breeder Captain George A. Graham. Today the Irish wolfhound is prized as a pet because of its loyalty and intelligence. The Irish wolfhound is about 71 to 94 cm (about 28 to 37 in) high at the shoulder and weighs up to about 61 kg (about 135 lb). The dog has a long head and a long muzzle; small ears; dark eyes; a very deep chest; muscular shoulders; a rough, hard coat that is especially wiry over the eyes and the underjaw; and a long, slightly curved tail. The color of the Irish Wolfhound may be gray, brindle, fawn, pure white, black, or red.
Kelpie (also Australian kelpie) is a breed of dog developed in Australia for herding sheep. The dog may weigh more than 14 kg (30 lb), and the male stands about 51 cm (about 20 in) at the shoulder. The ears are erect; the short coat is usually black or black and tan. The ancestors of the kelpie include the border collie and, probably, the dingo.
Lakeland Terrier is an English breed of dog, established in the 19th century for hunting purposes. The strongly built dog stands about 36 to 38 cm (about 14 to 15 in) at the shoulder, as an adult, and weighs about 8 kg (about 17 lb). The tail of Lakeland Terrier is docked, the small ears curl forward, and the wiry coat is usually black and tan, but other colors are also permitted in dog shows.
Kerry Blue Terrier is a breed of dog, which originated in county Kerry, Ireland, before the beginning of the 19th century. It is used in Ireland and England for hunting birds and small game and also as a sheep and cattle herder and as a watchdog. The breed first became well known in the United States in the 1930s. A typical Kerry blue has a long head and flat skull; small to medium-sized eyes, usually hazel in color; a deep chest; a moderately long neck; and a soft, curly coat that may be any of several shades of blue. The male dog averages 46 cm (18 in) high at the shoulder and weighs 15 to 17 kg (33 to 38 lb); the female is of slightly less height and weighs 15 to 16 kg (32 to 36 lb). It is an alert and intelligent dog, with unusual powers of endurance. Because of its loyalty and its gentleness toward children, the Kerry blue terrier is an admirable pet.
Labrador Retriever is a breed of sporting dog, trained to discover and fetch killed or wounded game, principally aquatic birds or pheasants. The breed originated in Newfoundland, Canada, at some unknown time and was imported into England early in the 19th century. It was known as a type of Newfoundland dog until about 1887, when it received its present name, probably to distinguish it from various types of Newfoundland dogs used as retrievers. The Kennel Club of England recognized it as a separate breed in 1903. The male is 58 to 64 cm (23 to 25 in) high at the shoulder and weighs 27 to 34 kg (60 to 75 lb); the female is somewhat smaller. The dog has a short and exceedingly dense black, yellow, or chocolate-colored coat that is almost impervious to water. It has a wide skull, medium-sized ears hanging fairly close to the head, eyes that are usually black or brown, a wide, deep chest, and straight legs. The characteristic “otter” tail of the Labrador retriever is of medium length, very thick at the base, and tapering gradually to the tip. The tail of the Labrador Retriever is covered thickly with the same kind of short, dense hair that is found in the coat.