Dachshund (German, “badger dog”) is a breed of hunting dog having short legs, a long body, and long ears. Originally developed in Germany, dachshunds were used to drive badgers from their holes, which the dogs could enter because of their short legs. Seldom used for hunting today, dachshunds are valued as pets for their bravery and good disposition. They have short hair, are tan or tan and black, and have houndlike heads. Standard sizes range in weight from 7 to 10 kg (15 to 22 lb); the miniature variety weighs much less. Dachshunds range in height from 13 to 23 cm (5 to 9 in). Long-haired and wirehaired varieties have been bred by crossing the short-haired variety with spaniels and terriers.
Doberman Pinscher is a breed of working dog that originated in Apolda, Germany, where it was first bred about 1890 from the German shepherd dog, the Rottweiler, the black and tan terrier, and the German pinscher. The Doberman pinscher is named after its first breeder, Louis Dobermann, a watchman who developed the dog to help him with his guard duties. It was employed at first as a watchdog and later was trained to act as a police dog and a war dog. Characteristics of the breed are a powerful musculature; a wedge-shaped head; dark eyes ranging from brown to black in color and having an alert, courageous expression; a well-muscled neck; and a smooth, hard, close-lying coat that is black, red, fawn, or blue in color. The male dog is about 66 to 71 cm (about 26 to 28 in) high at the shoulders and weighs from 29 to 34 kg (65 to 75 lb). Females are slightly smaller. It is obedient, loyal, and especially fond of children. The breed (Doberman Pinscher) became popular in the United States about 1921.
Albert Einstein was a German-born American physicist and the facts about Albert Einstein as explained below shows some of the most distinct details about his personality.
|Birth||March 14, 1879|
|Death||April 18, 1955|
|Place of Birth||Ulm, Germany|
|Known for||Proposing the theory of relativity, a physical theory of gravity, space, and time|
|Explaining the photoelectric effect and Brownian motion|
|Career||1905 Published papers on special relativity, Brownian motion, and the photoelectric effect|
|1909-1911 Taught physics at the University of Zürich|
|1911-1912 Taught physics at the German-speaking university in Prague|
|1912-1914 Returned to teach at the University of Zürich|
|1914 Became a professor at the University of Berlin and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics|
|1916 Published a paper on general relativity, extending his earlier theory of special relativity|
|1919 A solar eclipse confirmed Einstein’s prediction that starlight bends in the vicinity of a massive body such as the sun.|
|1921 Won the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the photoelectric effect|
|1933 Began teaching at Princeton University|
|1939 Pointed out, in a letter to President Roosevelt, the possibility that an extremely powerful bomb might be constructed using atomic chain reactions in uranium, and suggested that the Germans might be working on such a bomb|
|Did You Know||Einstein could not find a job in physics upon graduating from college, and became a technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. He worked on theoretical physics in his spare time.|
|Einstein did not receive a Nobel Prize for his theory of relativity.|
|Einstein immediately left Germany for the United States following Hitler’s rise to power.|
|Einstein spent much of his later career searching for a unified field theory, but was unsuccessful.|
|Einstein declined the presidency of the state of Israel when it was offered to him in 1952 by state leaders.|
|The element einsteinium, discovered in 1952, was named in honor of Albert Einstein.|
In essence Allbert Einstein was indeed an icon of science whose works are still very useful today and the facts about Albert Einstein reveals his birth, career and death.
The End of the War for Hitler began after the D-Day invasion. By the time of the Allied D-Day invasion of Normandy (Normandie), in northern France, in June 1944, the war was going very badly for Hitler. A series of losses to the Allies and failure to defeat the Soviets had left Hitler’s armies severely weakened. Hitler’s Germany had also changed a great deal. British and American bombers were devastating its industries and cities. The Germans who had reservations about Hitler’s regime had begun to find some recruits. However, most of the population still supported the regime and especially Hitler; consequently, those opposed to him saw his assassination followed by a military takeover as the only way to topple the dictatorship. Several assassination attempts, beginning in March 1943, miscarried. A bomb was placed in Hitler’s headquarters at Rastenberg in East Prussia (modern Poland) on July 20, 1944, but did not kill him. The conspirators tried to launch their coup anyway, but with little support the effort failed. Hundreds involved in the coup attempt were executed, and Hitler maintained control of the country.
Underestimating the Americans, Hitler launched his last reserves west into the Ardennes country of Belgium and Luxembourg in the Battle of the Bulge (December 1944-January 1945). He felt that despite massive Allied gains, a hard blow would cause popular support for the war in America to collapse, and would lead to the disintegration of the coalition arrayed against him. All he accomplished, however, was to draw away troops needed in the east, allowing the Soviet army’s winter offensive to roll all the way to the gates of Berlin. Hitler decided to remain in the city, hoping to inspire its defenders and anticipating a breakup of the Allies’ alliance. When neither of these hopes was realized, he appointed Karl Dönitz, the head of the navy and a devoted Nazi, as his successor. He then married his mistress Eva Braun and committed suicide in Berlin on April 30, 1945 and hence the End of the War for Hitler
- Adolf Hitler (egrejeen.wordpress.com)
Afghan Foreign Trade is commodity driven though backed by some other products as follows. Afghanistan’s chief exports are dried fruits and nuts, hand-woven carpets, wool, cotton, animal hides and pelts, and precious and semiprecious gems. Afghanistan imports food, motor vehicles, petroleum products, and textiles. The USSR was Afghanistan’s chief trading partner even before the 1979 Soviet invasion, and this relationship intensified in the 1980s. After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, the leading purchasers of Afghan products were the former Soviet republics, Pakistan, Britain, Germany, and India. The United States suspended normal trade relations with Afghanistan from 1986 to 2002. India, Japan, and Pakistan were the principal trading partners in 2003. Meanwhile, Afghanistan improved trade relations with the Central Asian republics, the United States, and the European Union (EU). In 2000 the total value of exports amounted to $125 million, while imports cost $524 million hence Afghan Foreign Trade depends more on imports than exports.
The Nazi Regime was lead by Adolf Hitler. Immediately upon becoming chancellor, Hitler moved to consolidate his power. He persuaded Hindenburg to issue a decree suspending all civil liberties in Germany. A subservient legislature passed the Enabling Act, which permitted Hitler’s government to make laws without legislative approval. The act effectively made the legislature powerless. Hitler then installed loyal Nazis in important posts in the bureaucracy, the judiciary, and the German provincial governments. He replaced all labor unions with the Nazi-controlled German Labor Front and banned all political parties except his own. The economy, the media, and all cultural activities were brought under Nazi authority. An individual’s livelihood was made dependent on his or her political loyalty. Thousands of anti-Nazis were taken to concentration camps—the existence of which was widely publicized—and all signs of dissent were suppressed. A massive propaganda campaign celebrated the end of democracy in Germany, and huge, staged demonstrations gave the impression that everyone supported Hitler.
Existing social, economic, and professional organizations were quickly taken over by individuals either already in the party or who would quickly join it. For the most part, leaders of Germany’s Protestant and Catholic churches rallied to the new government. Schools taught Nazi ideology. Soon the spare time of the young was absorbed by the Nazi Party as well—boys were drawn into the Hitler Youth, and girls became members of the Nazi-led League of German Girls. The goal was to indoctrinate people into the party starting at a young age. By the summer of 1933, the Nazi Party was in complete control of the country and this was to be the beginning of the brutality of the Nazi regime.
The Nazi Regime and Rearmament of Germany is one clear subject that has been discussed over the years on a number of fronts. Starting in 1933, Hitler began the process of German rearmament and militarization that would eventually lead to World War II. Hitler’s plans for conquest consisted of four distinct wars. The first war would be against Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic and Slovakia). He was certain that the Czechs would put up little resistance and Czech territory and resources could then be used to further his continuing plans for conquest. Hitler’s second war would be against Britain and France. He expected this to be the most difficult conflict, as these countries had defeated Germany during World War I. Hitler prepared for this war during the 1930s.
The third war would be against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), where Hitler planned to seize huge portions of territory for German settlement. However, Hitler badly miscalculated when he assumed the conquest of the USSR would be simple. His assumption was based on his belief that the Soviets, many of whom were of Slavic descent, were an inferior race controlled by the Jews under the guise of socialism. As a result, Hitler made no military preparations for that war and counted on a quick victory to provide Germany with the resources, especially the oil, needed for the fourth war, which was to be waged against the United States. Hitler felt that actually fighting the Americans would be easy, but technical preparations for the conflict had to be made well in advance because the United States was far away and had a large navy.
These military preparations with their enormous construction projects accelerated the economic recovery in Germany that had begun in 1932. Soon Germany faced a labor shortage instead of unemployment. As rearmament shifted into high gear, Hitler found he was short of money to buy foreign materials. This fact, combined with a desire to rely on domestic resources, led Hitler to inaugurate the Four-Year Plan in 1936. The plan called for Germany to be self-sufficient and ready for war in four years. Once the production of weapons for war against France and Britain was under way, Hitler in 1937 ordered the design and production of weapons for war with the United States. These arms included bombers that could reach America and a fleet of super battleships that Hitler planned to be the core of a dominant navy.
In response to Hitler’s call for German self-sufficiency, German steelmakers protested that the quality of domestic ores was too poor to use. When industry leaders refused to process the low-grade domestic ores, Hitler forced them to pay for a government-owned company that would. German industry was producing synthetic oil by 1933, and synthetic rubber and other substitutes followed. Hitler insisted that German workers be treated carefully and generously because he believed that domestic unrest caused by the hardships of war had brought about Germany’s defeat in World War I. During World War II, this policy required German armies to loot occupied territories, which resulted in the German people having the highest wartime rations in Europe. The Nazi Regime and Rearmament of Germany as discussed by historians is one that reminds us of a regime desperate to fight and kill just to be in control.
The European multirole combat aircraft (MRCA), being developed jointly by Great Britain, West Germany, and Italy, is expected to make its maiden flight during 1973. Delivery of production models of the multirole combat aircraft (MRCA) is planned for 1978. The two-seat airplane will be equipped with variable-geometry wings and will have a gross takeoff weight of 38,000 pounds.
Production work is being split between the three countries. Of the airframe, Britain is responsible for the tail and the front and rear of the fuselage, West Germany the center fuselage section, and Italy the wings. When the program got under way in 1969, it was estimated that 420 of the craft would be required for West Germany, 385 for Britain, and 100 for Italy, but with prices increasing rapidly, total production is expected to run less than 905.
Britain plans to use the multirole combat aircraft (MRCA) in a deep penetration role. West Germany will use it in a close support role, as a replacement for its fleet of 613 Lockheed F-104G Starfighters.
Britain, West Germany, and Italy are dividing airframe development costs on a 42.5-42.5-15 basis and engine development costs on a 40-40-20 basis. The program has a standard language, English, and a standard currency, the West German mark. Aerospace in 1972: European multirole combat aircraft (MRCA) fighter shows how bilateral cooperation between countries could bring resounding success in research and development.
This article examines A Chronology of the English Bible in the 20th Century from 1900-1950 and Lists the Events in the History of the English Versions of Scripture.
1900. Final meeting of the Niagara Bible Conference.
1901. American Standard Version.
1903. First edition of Weymouth’s New Testament (modern English version).
1904. Twentieth Century New Testament (modern English version). • Sigmund Freud, Psychopathology of Everyday Life.
1906. Azusa Street Revival in Los Angeles inaugurates modern Pentecostal movement.
1907. The foundation of Hollywood as a film-making center. • Walter Rauschenbusch’s Christianity and the Social Crisis articulates the “Social Gospel.”
1908. Delegates from 33 denominations meeting in Philadelphia establish the Federal Council of Churches to promote Social Gospel. • Ford Motor Company introduces the “Model T.”
1909. First edition of Scofield Reference Bible.
1910. First volume of The Fundamentals is published to counter liberal theology in America. • General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. adopts “Five Point” doctrinal test (Biblical inerrancy, virgin birth, substitutionary atonement, bodily resurrection, and reality of miracles).
1913. Von Soden’s Greek New Testament • Moffat New Testament (popular paraphrase).
1914. British declare war on Germany. • Ford Motor Co. installs chain-driven assembly lines.
1915. Telephone service between New York and San Francisco.
1917. Improved edition of Scofield Reference Bible. • U.S. declares war on Germany. • Communist revolutionaries gain control of Russian Empire.
1918. English Parliament adopts the “Representation of the People Act,” giving women the right to vote. • Treaty of Versailles humiliates Germany, ends First World War. League of Nations established.
1919. Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibits manufacture and sale of alcohol.
1920. Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution requires all states to give voting rights to women. • First commercial radio station in U.S. (KDKA Pittsburgh) begins broadcasting.
1922. Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. approves ordination of women as deacons. • Harry Emerson Fosdick preaches against Second Coming of Christ, Biblical inerrancy, Virgin Birth. • Lincoln Memorial dedicated in Washington, D.C.
1923. J. Gresham Machen, Christianity and Liberalism. • Time magazine founded. • Radio becomes popular craze in America.
1924. Methodist Episcopal Church approves ordination of women as local preachers.
1925. Major newspapers ridicule conservative opposition to theory of evolution in coverage of Scopes “Monkey” Trial in Dayton, Tennessee. • Liberals of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. overturn the “Five Point” test adopted in 1910. • Canadian Mehodists, Presbyterians and Congregationalists merge to form the United Church of Canada.
1928. Moffat Bible published with Old Testament
1929. Exodus of conservatives from Princeton; Westminster Theological Seminary founded in Philadelphia.
1930. Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. approves ordination of women as elders • First television program with sound broadcast by the BBC.
1932. General Association of Regular Baptist Churches formed by fundamentalists leaving the Northern Baptist Convention.
1933. Eighteenth Amendment (prohibiting alcohol) repealed.
1935. Moffat Bible revised.
1936. Orthodox Presbyterian Church founded by conservatives leaving the PCUSA. • United Church of Canada (uniting Methodists, Presbyterians, and Congregationalists) approves ordination of women.
1937. Charles Fuller begins weekly nation-wide radio broadcasts of “Old Fashioned Gospel Hour.”
1939. Sigmund Freud, Moses and Monotheism. • Britain declares war on Germany.
1940. Lamsa translation of Peshitta New Testament
1941. U.S. declares war on Japan after attack on Pearl Harbor.
1942. National Association of Evangelicals formed by anti-fundamentalist “neo-evangelicals” in St. Louis, to promote conservative Christian involvement in public affairs.
1944. U.S. Army lands at Normandy. • Youth for Christ founded by neo-evangelicals in Chicago.
1945. U.S. Air Force destroys 2 Japanese cities with atomic bombs. End of 2nd World War.
1946. Revised Standard version of the New Testament published with great fanfare.
1947. Dead Sea Scrolls (dated c. 150 B.C. to A.D. 75) discovered in Qumran. • Conservative Baptist Association founded by conservatives leaving the Northern Baptist Convention. • Fuller Theological Seminary founded by neo-evangelicals in Pasadena.
1948. Communist agents discovered in U.S. State Department. “Red Scare” begins. • World Council of Churches constituted in Amsterdam.
1949. Billy Graham’s evangelistic campaign in Los Angeles attracts national attention.
1950. National Council of Churches constituted in Cleveland. • Billy Graham begins television broadcasts.
A Chronology of the English Bible in the 20th Century from 1900-1950 as explained in this article shows the events that took place during the period in chronological order.
The Effects of Acid Rain on Trees can be best looked at by considering first and foremost the impact it has on soil where the tree grows. By removing useful nutrients from the soil, acid rain slows the growth of plants, especially trees. It also attacks trees more directly by eating holes in the waxy coating of leaves and needles, causing brown dead spots. If many such spots form, a tree loses some of its ability to make food through photosynthesis. Also, organisms that cause disease can infect the tree through its injured leaves. Once weakened, trees are more vulnerable to other stresses, such as insect infestations, drought, and cold temperatures.
Spruce and fir forests at higher elevations, where the trees literally touch the acid clouds, seem to be most at risk. Acid rain has been blamed for the decline of spruce forests on the highest ridges of the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States. In the Black Forest of southwestern Germany, half of the trees are damaged from acid rain and other forms of pollution and thus making the effects of acid rain on trees a serious course for concern.