Muammar al-Gaddafi (1942-2011) was born in June 1942 and was the Libyan revolutionary leader and strongman, known for his devotion to Islam and his zealous support for pan-Arabic and revolutionary causes. His full name is Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi (Arabic: مُعَمَّر القَذَّافِي Muʿammar al-Qaḏḏāfī).
In 1969, then a captain, Gaddafi led a coup that overthrew King Idris I and proclaimed Libya an Arab republic. As chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, he acquired dictatorial powers. He used Libya’s vast oil wealth to support Palestinian guerrillas against Israel; he also aided other insurrectional and terrorist groups, from Philippine Muslim rebels to the Irish Republican Army. He promoted various fruitless schemes for merging Libya with other Arab countries. At home, Gaddafi launched a cultural and social revolution that blended religious fundamentalism with Arab nationalism and aspects of the welfare state. Having instituted the so-called jamahiriya (“state of the masses”) in 1977, Gaddafi in 1979 gave up all formal posts in the administration but remained Libya’s unquestioned leader. In the mid-1980s, widely regarded in the West as the principal financier of international terrorism, he was the target of stepped-up military and diplomatic campaigns. Gaddafi was injured and his infant daughter killed in April 1986 when the U.S. bombed Libyan sites in response to terrorism allegedly traced to Libya.
His troubles began in February 2011 following the Arab spring that began in Tunisia and later Egypt and hence Libyans began protests against Gaddafi’s rule. The immediate consequence of this was a bloody rebellion which prompted the international community to act after the rebels established the National Transitional Council or NTC (A government based in Benghazi) and called for a no fly zone across Libya. The international community responded with United Nations Resolution 1973 authorizing a no fly zone across the country. By August Gaddafi had lost the battle of Tripoli and with mustering support from the West and the rest of the world, the National Transitional Council (NTC) took over the seat of Libya at the U.N. on the 16th of September 2011. But the city of Sirte was still under Gaddafi’s control having fled there. However, Muammar al-Gaddafi (1942-2011) was captured alive in his hide out in Sirte as the rebels assume control of the city and killed later on the 20th of October 2011.