The Former Spanish Colonies Abolitionism in Latin America was inspired by black rebellion which significantly weakened slavery. There were 1.5 million slaves in Brazil—a former Portuguese colony—in 1870, but otherwise slave populations in independent Latin American countries never approached the numbers of those in Caribbean colonies or in the United States. There were only 3,000 people to be freed in Mexico in 1823 when that country abolished slavery and only 13,000 in Venezuela when it abolished the institution in 1854. These small numbers reflected a gradual decline in the profitability of slave labor and a corresponding decline in the political influence of slaveholders. This decline was a result of changing economic ideas, as well as the introduction of cheap labor in the form of contract workers from China. All of these circumstances contrasted with those in the United States and the Caribbean colonies.
Several other factors contributed to the decline of slavery in Latin America. As elsewhere, black resistance to enslavement played an important role. Escape, maroon settlements, and rebellion all weakened Latin American slavery. Unlike in the United States, the slave population in Latin America had never sustained itself through natural reproduction, so the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade struck a telling blow. Other important factors were the new ideas of equality arising from the Age of Enlightenment and the revolutions of the late 18th century. During the early 19th century, such revolutionaries as Simón Bolívar fought for independence from Spain for the region’s Spanish colonies and endorsed universal freedom. The independent governments they created either weakened slavery or abolished it entirely.
Chile and Mexico in 1823 and the United Provinces of Central America in 1824 abolished slavery as a direct result of their independence movements. Economic and political forces led Uruguay in 1842, Bolivia and Colombia in 1851, Ecuador in 1852, Argentina in 1853, and Peru and Venezuela in 1854 to terminate the institution. When Brazilian troops invaded and occupied Paraguay in the 1860s at the end of the War of the Triple Alliance, the government they established abolished slavery. Since by then the United States had also abolished slavery, this left Brazil as the only independent slaveholding nation in the western hemisphere. The account given above simply suggest that the resistance put forth by the population of Slaves in Latin America which gave rise to the Former Spanish Colonies Abolitionism in Latin America was of a more lower capacity than their American counterparts.